Deep seabed mining (DSM) has become more accessible with the advancement of modern technology. The exploration and exploitation of oil and gas are some of the most common activities on the seabed. In 1873, during the scientific expedition of the HMS Challenger, scientists first discovered polymetallic nodules on the ocean floor. However, due to lack of advanced science and technology, it was not possible for States to explore and exploitate mineral resources found in deep seabed. Again during the International Geophysical Year (1957-58), polymetallic nodules were collected on the Tuamotu Plateau at a depth of some 900 meters. These nodules are a rich source of valuable minerals such as manganese, copper, cobalt, nickel, and others.
Protection of Foreign-Owned Entities Involved in Deep Seabed Mining—Through International Investment Law vis à vis Investment Arbitration, Vol. 53
1 Oct 2020